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David Hubacher ; Alice Olawo ; Carolyne Manduku ; James Kiarie ; Pai Lien Chen
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COURTESY OF UNFPA Kenya 13th August 2014 Maternal mortality is one of the indicators of reproductive health status of the population. Efforts to reduce maternal deaths have for decades been …
COURTESY OF UNFPA Kenya
13th August 2014
Maternal mortality is one of the indicators of reproductive health status of the population. Efforts to reduce maternal deaths have for decades been a focal point of international agreements and a priority for women’s rights and health groups throughout the world because a maternal death is one of life’s most tragic outcomes. The irony is that almost all maternal deaths are entirely preventable given proper medical surveillance and intervention.
In the last round of censuses, the United Statistics Statistical Division (UNSD) encouraged many developing countries to include questions on pregnancy related deaths as a way of helping improve on the quantity and quality of data needed in the estimation of maternal mortality in the world. This was subsequently adopted in the 2009 Kenya Population and Housing census. Respondents were asked to report any death in the household in the last 12 months prior to enumeration. These were subsequently named the recent deaths in the household. Among the deceased females age 12 to 49 subsequent questions were asked on whether the female deaths were pregnancy related (i.e. during pregnancy, during delivery or within two months after delivery).
Measurement of maternal mortality
Several indicators are used to measure maternal mortality in order to display sources of different risks as well as interventions. In the first place, all maternal deaths as outcomes from pregnancy and the first definition ispregnancy-related death which is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death. When information on the cause of death is available, then we have maternal death, which is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
However, for comparison purposes between different contexts due to differences in the risk of pregnancy maternal mortality ratio (MMR) are often used. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is thus the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100,000 live births during the same time period. MMR captures the risk of death in a single pregnancy or a single live birth or in technical terms it measures the extent of obstetric risk.
In the entire country, a total of about 32,021 women of reproductive age were reported to have died out of which 6,632 died of pregnancy related causes. Out of the total number of women of reproductive age who had died, 21 percent was as a result of pregnancy related causes. Table 1 shows the ranking of top 15 counties by number of maternal deaths and maternal mortality ratio. Columns 1-3 are the ranks by number of maternal deaths. It indicates that only 15 out of 47 counties account for 98.7 % of the total maternal deaths in the country. However, the number of deaths masks important considerations such as the size of women population in the region as well as the frequency of pregnancies, an alternative ranking is by maternal mortality ratio which takes into account the obstetric risk. This is provided from column 4 to 6. Mandera and Wajir still rank highest in terms of absolute number of maternal deaths as well as the increased obstetric risks.
TABLE 1: RANKING OF COUNTIES BY NUMBER OF MATERNAL DEATHS AND MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO
|Rank||Region||maternal deaths||Rank||Region||Maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100,000 live birth|
|Percent of the total number of deaths||98.7|
Although Nairobi, Nakuru, Kakamega, Kilifi, Nandi Bungoma, and Kwale rank higher in terms of number deaths, in terms of MMR they do not rank higher. In terms of the maternal mortality burden it is therefore important to include risks in number of deaths as well as obstetric risk. This is shown in Table 2. At national level nearly half of deaths (48 %) occur during delivery. In 5 counties (Lamu, Garissa, wajir, Mandera and Turkana) over half of deaths occur during delivery. The county with highest proportion dying during pregnancy is Marsabit. Siaya, Kisumu and Taita taveta have the highest proportion dying in the post-partum period. The implication here is that different factors influence the risk of maternal death in the different counties. Kenya is among the top 10 Countries with the highest number of HIV-associated maternal deaths and about 20 percent of maternal deaths is indirectly related to HIV. Thus HIV may be important in Nyanza region counties which have the highest prevalence of HIV while other factors may be important in Mandera, Wajir and Garissa with low prevalence of HIV.
TABLE 2: RANKING OF COUNTIES BY BURDEN OF MATERNAL MORTALITY
|County||Maternal deaths||MMR||Percent of deaths during|
|Pregnancy||Delivery||2 months after delivery|
Courtesy of WHO
16 MAY 2016 | GENEVA | COPENHAGEN – New WHO recommendations aim to help health workers provide better care to the more than 200 million girls and women worldwide living with female genital mutilation.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) describes all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. FGM has no health benefits, can cause grave harm, and violates the rights of girls and women. Procedures can cause severe bleeding, problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, and death. FGM can also result in complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths.
International migration has now made the practice, prevalent in 30 countries in Africa and in a few countries in Asia and the Middle East, a global health issue.
Health workers across the world now need to be prepared to provide care to girls and women who have undergone FGM. But, health workers are often unaware of the many negative health consequences of FGM and many remain inadequately trained to recognize and treat them properly. As a result, many women may suffer needlessly from physical and mental health consequences due to FGM.
“Health workers have a crucial role in helping address this global health issue. They must know how to recognize and tackle health complications of FGM,” says Dr Flavia Bustreo, WHO Assistant Director General. “Access to the right information and good training can help prevent new cases and ensure that the millions of women who have undergone FGM get the help they need.”
Since 1997, there have been growing international efforts to stop FGM. These include research, work within communities, revised legal frameworks and growing political support to end the practice, as well as international monitoring bodies and resolutions that condemn it. In 2007, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) initiated the Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting to accelerate the abandonment of the practice.
The WHO guidelines build and contribute to these efforts, underlining the recognition that action must be taken across sectors to stop the practice and help those who are living with its consequences.
The recommendations focus on preventing and treating obstetric complications; treatment for depression and anxiety disorders; attention to female sexual health such as counselling, and the provision of information and education.
The guidelines also warn against the so called “medicalization” of FGM, for example when parents ask health providers to conduct FGM because they think it will be less harmful.
“It is critical that health workers do not themselves unwittingly perpetuate this harmful practice,” adds Dr Lale Say, WHO Coordinator, Department of Reproductive Health and Research at WHO.
In 2010, WHO published a “Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation” in collaboration with the UNFPA and UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting and other partners.
One fundamental measure to prevent medicalization of FGM is the creation of protocols, manuals and guidelines for health providers. These include what to do when faced with requests from parents or family members to perform FGM on girls, or requests from women to perform re-infibulation after delivery.
The guidelines also highlight the need for more research to improve evidence-based practice, so that health workers can better manage the complications arising from FGM, and the health community is better informed about the associated health risks, which also can contribute to effectively work towards the elimination of this harmful practice.
TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND SCHOOL RE-ENTRY DEBACLE
By Alex Omari:
Teenage pregnancy has remained a major health and social concern because it’s highly associated with high maternal and child morbidity and mortality. In Kenya, teenage pregnancy is not only a reproductive health issue, but is also a all rounded issue as it directly affects the current and future socio-economic well-being of women. Childbearing during the teenage years affects female educational attainment, as young girls who become mothers in their teen period become more likely to curtail their education.
Kilifi and Homa Bay Counties in the former Coast and Nyanza Provinces of Kenya respectively experience high unintended teenage pregnancy rates. Despite there being a policy that allows young mothers to return to school, the Counties have a high female school dropout rate. Past researches in the regions have highlighted three main obstacle
In Homa Bay County, 33.3 % of 15- to 19-year-old girls are pregnant or have given birth, well above the national average of 18 percent, according to the 2014 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. Kilifi County has rate of 21.8%
According to research conducted by Plan International Kenya (2012) child marriage stands at 47.4%, cultural practices such as village dances and funerals are largely to blame for the rising teenage pregnancies. This is because such festivities attract a large number of unsupervised children who are likely to engage in risky behaviors. Culture seems to tolerate the vice.
Population Council (2015) carried out a household and school survey in Homa Bay to measure key variables, which include awareness of school re-entry policies and policy content, supportive structures and practices around school re-entry, and actual school re-entry by out-of-school teenage mothers. From the 728 teenage girls aged 13–19 who were interviewed, pregnancy was the main reason why most teenage mothers left school.
School re-entry by parenting girls is viewed as more acceptable than school continuation by pregnant learners. Key informants (out-of-school teenage mothers, their household heads, students, and school principals) had positive views of school re-entry for teenage mothers than of school continuation by pregnant learners. Financial constraints and child care have been highlighted as some of the key barriers that prohibit school re-entry for teenage mothers.
There are lots of myths and misconceptions about family planning. Some of them include “You can give birth to an animal”, “ Your child will be born looking weird’’ , “ Condoms go all the way up into the stomach and don’t come out.”
Kenyan Policy Framework
Kenya introduced ‘return to school’ policy for teenage mums in 1994. A girl that gets pregnant is supposed to be allowed to remain in school for as long as she thinks she can. After delivery, she is supposed to be allowed to go back or be given support to gain admission into another secondary school if she feels there are issues of stigma and discrimination.
The policy also says that pregnant schoolgirls and their parents should receive counseling. Despite the policy being there, a lot of school staff well versed in it
The International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) Kenya carried out a rapid assessment on the teenage pregnancy research study late 2015 by documenting the views of key influencers in Kilifi County. The results will be disseminated and shared to the County government after which the media will be engaged in advocacy and communication
Best Practice Model
The most notable intervention advocated for, is to enhance the access of teen mothers to education is media engagement by running radio programs. The radio program draws on real-life stories of teenage motherhood by interviewing girls who have experienced it.
The program not only has to focus on the teens but also individuals in their support system such as parents/guardians school staff , mandated County Departments and other technical experts in reinforcing messages to support school re-entry for girls who have been pregnant
Source: The Painful Knife
By Alex Omari
Female Genital Mutilation has been a cultural practice for some of the Kenyan communities over decades but it’s time we all stood up and said “No to FGM”. Despite it being illegal, some people still practice it privately. In 2011, Kenya banned female genital mutilation by passing a law to make it illegal to practice FGM or to take someone abroad to be ‘cut’ famously known as the “ Prohibition of FGM Act”. Faith, a 10 year old girl (not her real name) told me of her story of how she went through the terrible ordeal of going through the knife.
‘‘When I closed school for the December holidays, I was told by my mum that we are to visit our aunt for the festive season. My aunt and my mum had planned it all leaving me in darkness .When we were at my auntie’s place; I was told that I would remain behind as mum left. After that, a strange woman visited our house and that’s when the aunt said that I was going to be a big girl ’’
FGM is very painful, traumatizes girls and results in numerous negative health consequences that last for ages and can even cause death. This is a form of violence against girls that oppresses them and hence prevents the girls from fully participating in the nation’s progress.
Over 140 million girls and women globally, are estimated to have undergone some form of FGM. Currently, more than three million girls, majority being below 15 years of age, undergo the procedure each year. The just released recent Kenya Demographic Health Survey (KDHS, 2014) indicates that 21 percent of women reported to being circumcised, as compared with 27 percent in 2008-09 and 32 percent in 2003.
Research shows that FGM is practiced by different ethnic within the country in different ways. It is far more prevalent among the Somali (93.6percent), Kisii (84.4 percent) and Maasai (77.9 percent) communities.
From the survey data, Kenya achieved an annual rate of reduction of 6 percent in the prevalence of FGM between 2008 and 2014. FGM has both immediate and long-term effects on women’s health and these include severe bleeding, infection, shock and recurrent urinary tract infections.
The current statistics indicate that we are heading towards the right direction though much needs to be done if we are to realize vision 2030 developmental goals. This can only be achieved if we have uncompromising leadership and political will supported by on toes law enforcement and effective community mobilization. The social norm change practice should be felt at the community level.