Courtesy of Guttmacher Institute
Courtesy of Guttmacher Institute
After the promulgation of the Constitution of Kenya (2010), maternal health projects saw light and there was hope of finally acknowledging women and upholding their rights. This was seen as a step in the right path after the National Guidelines for reducing maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion in Kenya were instituted in September 2012.On the eve of Madaraka day in 2013, His Excellency the President declared free access to maternal services in all public health facilities which was a notch higher towards realizing global development.
However, on 3rd December 2013, the then Director of Medical Services withdrew the same guidelines under unclear circumstances which caused uproar among reproductive health advocates nationally. This marked the beginning on the bumpy industry as the providers were reluctant to provide comprehensive reproductive health services.
According to a study carried out by African Population and Research Center in 2012, an estimated 464,690 induced abortions occurred in Kenya in 2012, corresponding to an induced abortion rate of 48 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age (15-49 years), and an induced abortion ratio of 30 abortions per 100 births in 2012. This high rates and complications from unsafe procedures accelerated maternal deaths nationally.
At the global arena, the former US President’s Administration was supportive of the maternal health programs but as expected by many reproductive health advocates, the Trump administration was to be a backlash. Little be told that, majority of the people around the world had expected Hillary Clinton to win the US elections and hence many were comfortable that there was to be a buy-in and continuation of the Obama Legacy. This meant that there was no contingent plan as what would be the next step in case the unforeseen happens, which indeed happened.
Every time there is a new administration in US, there is always that critical decision on whether or not to adopt the Mexico City Policy. First announced in Mexico City in 1984 by President Reagan’s administration, the policy requires all nongovernmental organizations operating abroad to refrain from performing, advising on or endorsing pregnancy by choice initiatives if they wish to receive federal funding. To date, support for the Mexico City Policy has been strictly partisan: it was rescinded by Democratic President Bill Clinton on 22 January 1993, restored by Republican President George W Bush on 22 January 2001 and rescinded again by Democratic President Barack Obama on 23 January 2009 and again restored a few days ago by President Trump.
The Global Gag Rule or Mexico City Policy stipulates that taxpayer dollars should not be used to pay for pregnancy by choice programs or related services (such as counselling, education or training). The impact of the Policy is an increase in maternal deaths and morbidities aggravated by unsafe abortions. This move will deny thousands of the Kenyan Women access to the comprehensive reproductive health services through the Ksh. 60 billion annual grant from the US government. As of today, 220million women from developing countries have unmet need for family planning in which Kenya is included.
Alternative avenues need to be portrayed for the women to have a voice in this world at this stage. Most recently the Canadian and Dutch governments have come in support for women and will fill the void left by USAID in the developing nations. More needs to be done across the globe
COURTESY OF UNFPA Kenya
13th August 2014
Maternal mortality is one of the indicators of reproductive health status of the population. Efforts to reduce maternal deaths have for decades been a focal point of international agreements and a priority for women’s rights and health groups throughout the world because a maternal death is one of life’s most tragic outcomes. The irony is that almost all maternal deaths are entirely preventable given proper medical surveillance and intervention.
In the last round of censuses, the United Statistics Statistical Division (UNSD) encouraged many developing countries to include questions on pregnancy related deaths as a way of helping improve on the quantity and quality of data needed in the estimation of maternal mortality in the world. This was subsequently adopted in the 2009 Kenya Population and Housing census. Respondents were asked to report any death in the household in the last 12 months prior to enumeration. These were subsequently named the recent deaths in the household. Among the deceased females age 12 to 49 subsequent questions were asked on whether the female deaths were pregnancy related (i.e. during pregnancy, during delivery or within two months after delivery).
Measurement of maternal mortality
Several indicators are used to measure maternal mortality in order to display sources of different risks as well as interventions. In the first place, all maternal deaths as outcomes from pregnancy and the first definition ispregnancy-related death which is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death. When information on the cause of death is available, then we have maternal death, which is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
However, for comparison purposes between different contexts due to differences in the risk of pregnancy maternal mortality ratio (MMR) are often used. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is thus the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100,000 live births during the same time period. MMR captures the risk of death in a single pregnancy or a single live birth or in technical terms it measures the extent of obstetric risk.
In the entire country, a total of about 32,021 women of reproductive age were reported to have died out of which 6,632 died of pregnancy related causes. Out of the total number of women of reproductive age who had died, 21 percent was as a result of pregnancy related causes. Table 1 shows the ranking of top 15 counties by number of maternal deaths and maternal mortality ratio. Columns 1-3 are the ranks by number of maternal deaths. It indicates that only 15 out of 47 counties account for 98.7 % of the total maternal deaths in the country. However, the number of deaths masks important considerations such as the size of women population in the region as well as the frequency of pregnancies, an alternative ranking is by maternal mortality ratio which takes into account the obstetric risk. This is provided from column 4 to 6. Mandera and Wajir still rank highest in terms of absolute number of maternal deaths as well as the increased obstetric risks.
TABLE 1: RANKING OF COUNTIES BY NUMBER OF MATERNAL DEATHS AND MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO
|Rank||Region||maternal deaths||Rank||Region||Maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100,000 live birth|
|Percent of the total number of deaths||98.7|
Although Nairobi, Nakuru, Kakamega, Kilifi, Nandi Bungoma, and Kwale rank higher in terms of number deaths, in terms of MMR they do not rank higher. In terms of the maternal mortality burden it is therefore important to include risks in number of deaths as well as obstetric risk. This is shown in Table 2. At national level nearly half of deaths (48 %) occur during delivery. In 5 counties (Lamu, Garissa, wajir, Mandera and Turkana) over half of deaths occur during delivery. The county with highest proportion dying during pregnancy is Marsabit. Siaya, Kisumu and Taita taveta have the highest proportion dying in the post-partum period. The implication here is that different factors influence the risk of maternal death in the different counties. Kenya is among the top 10 Countries with the highest number of HIV-associated maternal deaths and about 20 percent of maternal deaths is indirectly related to HIV. Thus HIV may be important in Nyanza region counties which have the highest prevalence of HIV while other factors may be important in Mandera, Wajir and Garissa with low prevalence of HIV.
TABLE 2: RANKING OF COUNTIES BY BURDEN OF MATERNAL MORTALITY
|County||Maternal deaths||MMR||Percent of deaths during|
|Pregnancy||Delivery||2 months after delivery|
#Teenagers should be Listening to School Bells Ring NOT Wedding Bells!!!!
By Alex Omari
Reproductive health concerns of adolescents have received increasing international attention in recent years. Early childbearing is linked to a number of undesirable health outcomes such as risk of death, pregnancy-related illnesses, abortion, infertility and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases including human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Female adolescents, compared to their male counterparts, face disproportionate health concerns due to teenage pregnancies.
Although sexual activity among the adolescents is widespread around the world, the determinants and consequences are likely to vary from one region to another. Early pregnancies are more pronounced in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, most of which experience high levels of poverty. Due to the differences in socio-economic as well as cultural backgrounds, the results from a developing country like Kenya are likely to differ from those based on experiences of the richer, industrialized nations. For instance, given limited resources in rural areas, girls are forced to drop out of school or get married at an early age. In addition, inability to meet basic and personal material needs makes teenage girls susceptible to pre-marital sex. Such factors are likely to predispose them to unwanted pregnancies.
In Kenya, teenage pregnancy is not only as a reproductive health issue, but is also a multi facet issue as it directly affects the current and future socio-economic well-being of women. Early childbearing deny girls the opportunity to complete education and the ability to acquire human capital skills which are critical in the labour market. Given the absence of welfare benefits and child support, teenage pregnancies lead to increased dependency, and are likely to perpetuate poverty and low status of women. The relatively high levels of poverty and with the HIV/AIDS pandemic being toll order among the Kenyan youth, teenage pregnancies pose a serious policy problem.
Even though teenage pregnancies are viewed as one of the major hindrances to girl’s education in Kenya, there has been little effort in critically evaluating the underlying determinants. And by the fact that interest in fertility studies and policies has largely focused on adults, less attention has being accorded to adolescents.
Despite its implications, empirical studies on causes of teenage pregnancies in the context of
African countries are scanty. More often, teenage pregnancy is mentioned merely as one of the consequences of the high-risk sexual behavior